1. Neurosurg Rev. Jul;32(3); discussion doi: /s Epub May The Canon of Medicine (Kitab al-Qanun fi al-tibb) by Ibn Sina (the illuminated opening of the 4th book). A rare complete copy made in Iran probably at the begin. A historical approach could help in the detection of some viewpoints that cannot be paid attention to or signified by a purely medical one.

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The editors are grateful to: Accessed November 8, The Canon divides life into four “periods” and then subdivides the first period into five separate categories. The period of formation of the teeth. The Canon defines a humour as “that fluid, moist ‘body’ into which our aliment is transformed”, [8]: If it is said that some parts of medicine are theoretical and other parts are practical, this does not mean that one part teaches medicine and the other puts it into practice — as many researchers in this subject believe.

The gums are not full of teeth.

The Canon of Medicine

Behnaz Atighi Moghaddam, Islamic Art specialist in London, offers an expert guide to a field in which prices range from a few thousand pounds to several million. Avicenna generalizes youth as having a “hot” temperament, but comments that there is controversy over which periods of youth are hotter.

William Osler described the Canon as “the most famous medical qanjn ever written”, noting that it remained “a medical bible for a longer time than any other work.

The Evolution Of Modern Medicine. He was also the first to point out the fact that haematuria may be due to causes outside the urinary system, for example, blood diseases. Inflammations become febrile Loss of vigour.

Australian Bush Western Europe. Price realised GBP 20, Qqanun entry contains the substance’s name, its criteria of goodness which sometimes describes how the substance is found in natureand its nature or primary qualities.

Retrieved 12 October He defined medicine tibb as follows:. The substances are simple in the sense of not being compounded with other substances. The Canon of Medicine is divided into five books: If we cannot aptly comment on the theories regarding the etymology of illnesses or, in other terms, the “philosophy of medicine”, I believe that it will be impossible to thoroughly comprehend ancient medicine.


If its initial effect is contrary to what comes later, or if there is no initial effect at first and the effect shows up later, this leads to uncertainty and confusion. It is possible that the drug acted directly against one disease, and acted against the symptom of the other.

It is possible that the drug was effective because it dissolved the phlegm or removed it; when the [phlegm] disappeared the fever disappeared.

What does Al-Qanun Fi Al-Tibb (the Canon of Medicine) say on head injuries?

Avicenna suggests that these qualities battle between each other until an equilibrium state is reached and this state is known as the temperaments. Book 5 the Formulary lists compound drugs, [2] [8]: The generation and nourishment of proper soul takes place in the heart; it resides in the heart and arteries, and is transmitted from the qanum to the organs through the arteries.

A cura di Giuliano Tamani. To ensure gentle catheterisation, Ibn Sina designed catheters with rounded, firm tips and many side holes from the skin of certain marine and other animals. Still much has to be revealed if meticulous and exhaustive studies are made in the Qanun of.

Examples of the sixteen intemperaments are provided in the “third and fourth volumes.

The material cause, the efficient cause, the formal cause, and the final cause: The obverse depicts a scene showing Avicenna surrounded by his disciples, inspired by a miniature in a 17th-century Turkish manuscript; whilst on the reverse is a phrase by Avicenna in Arabic and Latin: In disease pathogenesisfor example, Avicenna “added his own view of different types of spirits or vital life essences and souls, whose disturbances might lead to bodily diseases because of a close association between them and such master organs as the brain and heart”.

For example, blood was considered “hot” as was mentioned earlier, therefore youth is assumed to be hot partially due to blood being more “plentiful” and “thicker”, according to Avicenna. Scammony, if used to treat a cold disease, would no doubt have a warming effect and bring benefit.


Confusingly, there appear to have been two men called Gerard of Cremona, both translators of Arabic texts into Latin. There are only four because something cannot be simultaneously hotter and colder or drier and moister. Ibn Sina was a prolific writer; he wrote even under trying circumstances such as in prison. The second part is a list of simple floral, mineral, and animal substances. Retrieved 19 December National Library of Medicine. It set the standards for medicine in Medieval Europe and the Islamic world and was used as a standard medical textbook through the 18th century in Europe.

Reduction involved the use of pressure and traction to correct bone and joint deformities. The first book kitabalso called kulliyat, concerns general medical principles. Medicine in the medieval Islamic world. For this reason, in order to comprehend thoroughly the medicine of Ibn Sina, we must first perform an exhaustive study of the meanings of the medical terms used in the medical literature of the period.

In scenes below, physicans appear to be helping patients and instructing others in how to plant and gather herbs. One should be aware that the intention is something else: We still have to look at the mental powers or faculties that motivate this body.

Both Qanuj Sina and al-Razi warned against catheterization in the presence of inflammation, as it increases the swelling and pain.

Evidence for youth having an excess of blood is suggested by Avicenna’s observation that nose bleeds are more frequent within youth. The Rise of Experimental Biology: Fevers related to serous humour Rheumatism.

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